After 1801 conditions aboard convict transports
seemed to improve, with prisoners generally treated more humanely,
and fewer dying or landed sick. However in 1814 three vessels,
the General Hewart, Three Bees and Surrey
voyaged with heavy loss of life, and the rest sick and emaciated
and generally suffering the ravages of scurvy and typhus.
The Surrey, as a convict transport, departed England on 22 February 1814, and after a stop in Rio arrived in Sydney on 27 July 1814, accompanied by the Broxbornebury which berthed next day. For this voyage of 156 days, which was to attract great public and official attention, the Surrey embarked 200 male convicts, transported under the Plymouth court's instruction dated 7 February 1814. Thirty-six of the convicts were to die on board of Infections and malignant fever (typhus), together with the Surgeon, First and Second Mates, Boatswain, two seamen and four of the guard. James Patterson, the master, died after arrival in Sydney; Thomas Raine, a junior officer, succeeded to the command.
Upon arrival, all survivors were placed under a strict quarantine, with those infected encamped on the north shore of Port Jackson where they remained until 18 August. The convicts were then brought across to Sydney, inspected and distributed as a labour force amongst the free settlers. The official report of the Board of Enquiry headed by the colony's Assistant Surgeon Redfern (himself a transportee) ascribed blame to neglect by the Master and Surgeon. The accompanying Broxbornebury suffered only two deaths amongst its 120 female convicts, which was not unusual for such a voyage.
Amongst the transportees on the Surrey was Robert Cross, convicted for burglary in Yorkshire Assizes on 31 July 1813 and sentenced to death by hanging, commuted to life imprisonment which, for transportees, was generally served as fourteen years labour in Australia. Robert's wife Jane, with their three children, travelled as "Free Settlers" aboard the Broxbornebury, and commenced an interesting life association with fellow passenger John Horsley, though always in apparently amiable contact with Robert.
The Surrey sailed on for China on 8 November, under Thomas Raine. Redfern's report to Governor Macquarie urged the appointment of naval surgeons to the transports, and the provision of an assistant surgeon. This report probably served to confirm the action by the Transport Commissioners in appointing naval surgeons to the transports, Joseph Arnold sailing from England on the Northampton on 2 January 1815.
In 1816 the Surrey, commanded by Thomas Raine, sailed from London, departing Cork on 14 July and travelling via Rio de Janiero on 26 September reached Sydney after 159 days on 20 December with 150 male prisoners. The markedly improved treatment for the prisoners under the enlightened captaincy of Thomas Raine and the presence of naval surgeon John F Bayley were reflected by the safe arrival of all prisoners embarked. The Surrey returned to London via Batavia, Calcutta and Brazil.
The Surrey, or Surry, had an especially long career in the convict service and later as a trader, becoming one of the best-known vessels to visit Australia.
She was a typical convict vessel of the period. Built at Harwich in 1811, she was owned by the well-known London firm of Mangles. She was a fully square-rigged ship of 443 72/94 tons, with an overall length of 117 ft. 6 ins. and a breadth above the wales of 29 ft. 6 ins. Her draught when loaded was 18 ft., but when carrying prisoners and stores in 1816 she drew 16 ft. 3 ins. forward and 17 ft. 2 ins. aft, being down by the stern eleven inches. She was copper sheathed, and had quarter galleries, with a Minerva bust for a figurehead. As originally built, the Surrey had two decks with a height between decks of 5 ft. 8 ins., but was rebuilt about 1818 and from the following year is shown in the registers as having three decks. She rated for many years as a first-class ship built of first-class materials. (Bateson, 1959).
3. Rebuilt and now with three decks the Surrey departed Sheerness 29 September 1818 and England on 17 October, sailing via Rio to reach Port Jackson on 4 March 1819, 156 days out from Sheerness. Surgeon Matthew Anderson. The Surrey had embarked 160 male prisoners, of whom three died on the voyage. Seven were landed in Port Jackson before the Surrey sailed on, reaching Van Diemen's Land on 18 March, 152 days after leaving England, and disembarking the remaining 150 prisoners. She returned to Port Jackson from the Derwent about 21 April with general cargo, remaining for three months before setting sail for London on 23 July. She took with her detachments of the 84th and 48th Regiments, and a cargo of hides, whale and seal oil, sealskins, wool, coconut oil and tan.
4. NSW's Governor Lachlan Macquarie sailed to England aboard the Surry, as she was commonly spelt, on 15 February 1822.
5. Departed Portsmouth 5 October 1822, sailing direct to Port Sydney which she reached on 4 March 1823, after a passage of 150 days. Surgeon Charles Linton took charge of the 160 male prisoners, with the records showing 157 landed in Sydney.
6. Now 461 tons and classed E1, the Surrey departed London mastered by Charles Kemp and with Henry G Brock as surgeon on 11 August 1829, arriving 125 days later in HobartTown on 14 December. On this voyage 200 male transportees were embarked, all but one surviving the voyage.
7. Mastered by Charles Kemp and with surgeon Colin A Browning, the Surrey sailed from Portsmouth on 17 July 1831, and after a passage of 132 days reached Port Jackson on 26 November. All but one of the 200 male prisoners embarked survived the voyage.
8. Left the Downs on 4 December 1832 mastered by Charles Kemp, with surgeon David Wyse. Arrived HobartTown 124 days later on 7 April 1833. Supposedly 204 male prisoners had been embarked, though despite one reported death en route 204 were apparently landed alive in Van Diemen's Land.
9. Now classed Æ1, the Surrey exited Plymouth 7 April 1834 and 132 days later reached Port Jackson on 17 August. Still mastered by Kemp, her surgeon was John Smith. On this voyage the Surrey conveyed all 260 embarked male prisoners safely to Sydney.
10. The Surrey sailed from Cork on 9 January 1836, taking 129 days to reach Port Jackson on 17 May. Her new master was George Sinclair, and her surgeon Thomas Robertson. Five of the 229 male convicts aboard died on the voyage, two were re-landed, the remaining 224 reaching Sydney safely.
11. Transporting female convicts on her 1840 voyage only, the Surrey sailed direct from the Downs on 2 April with 213 prisoners, reaching Port Jackson on 13 July, 102 days out. Sinclair was still master, and accompanied on this voyage by surgeon Ed. Leah. One prisoner died on this voyage, the remainder landed safely in Sydney.
12. On her last voyage as a convict transport, the Surrey sailed from Downs to HobartTown via the Cape, departing 5 April 1842 and arriving 128 days later on 11 August. Her master now was Henry I Naylor, her surgeon John Tarn. Three of the 250 male prisoners embarked died during the passage, 247 being delivered to the authorities in HobartTown.
13. The Surry arrived in Port Adelaide 11 October 1838 from London. Migrants who travelled in this vessel formed a township on the road to Onkaparinga SA which they named Surryville. [Parsons, 1988, says the Surrey also conveyed convicts in 1848].
Thomas Raine, one of the colonies better known masters, is buried in Camperdown Cemetery. Between 1814 and 1836, Raine captained the Surrey in 40 voyages. He opened Australia's first whaling station, at Eden on the New South Wales south coast, in 1828. He was the first to ship Australian cedar overseas.
[The 1825 Quebec-built A1 barque Surrey made one voyage to Australia as a convict transport, departing Cork on 5 November 1832 and reaching Port Jackson direct on 9 March 1833, a voyage of 124 days.]